During this season of Great Fast, we practice three acts of piety that we sustain from the Jewish tradition. They are almsgiving, prayer, and fasting. Jesus, as a genuine Rabbi, reaffirmed these with modifications, because people observed them as a show up of their holiness than maintaining the genuine spirit behind them. Jesus upholds these three and promises rewards from his Father for those who practice them properly. Almsgiving, prayer, and fasting are interrelated. Charity is rewarding when it is done on behalf of Jesus (Mt 25:40). God, who seeks mercy than sacrifice (Mt 9:13), pursues charity along with prayer. Fasting should include prayer and sharing of God-given gifts with others. Let us make this season of Great Fast meaningful by holding the genuine spirit of it with more prayers, fasting, and charity without longing for public recognition.
BIBLE TEXT (MATTHEW 6:1-8; 16-18 )
Teaching About Almsgiving
(Mt 6:1) Be careful not to make a show of your righteous acts before people. If you do so, you do not gain anything from your Father in heaven. (2) When you give something to the poor, do not have it trumpeted before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets in order to be praised by the people. I assure you, they have received their reward in full already. (3) But when you give something to the poor, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing, (4) so that your gift remains really secret. Your Father who sees what is kept secret, will reward you.
Teaching About Prayer
(Mt 6:5) When you pray, do not be like the hypocrites. They love to stand and pray in the synagogues or on street corners to be seen by everyone. I assure you, they have already been paid in full. (6) When you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father who is with you in secret; and your Father who sees what you do in secret will reward you. (7) When you pray, do not use a lot of words, as the Gentiles do, for they imagine that the more they say, the more chance they have of being heard. (8) Do not be like them. Your Father knows what you need, even before you ask him.
Teaching About Fasting
(Mt 6:16) When you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do. They neglect their appearance, so people can see they are fasting. Truly I say to you, they have received their reward in full already. (17) When you fast anoint your head and wash your face, (18) so that other people will not know you are fasting, but only your Father who sees beyond appearances. And your Father, who sees what is done in secret will reward you.
Chapters five to seven of Matthew’s gospel, known as the Sermon on the Mount, is a collection of Jesus’ teachings with amendments to the traditional practices and teachings of rabbis. He addresses them to his disciples and the public. It is not a deviation from the previous teachings of Israel, but a perfection of what was distorted in the past with an emphasis on unconditional love and reward in heaven for sacrificial life in building up the Kingdom of God. The essence of the gospel is in the Sermon on the Mount along with the famous teachings like the Beatitudes (Mt 5:3-12) and the Lord’s prayer (Mt 6:9-13).
Jesus endorses the three traditional obligations of religious life: almsgiving, prayer, and fasting, with the caution not to exhibit them for seeking public appreciation. God’s recognition will come when we do them with the right intent and genuine spirit. Jesus teaches this in the background of the hypocrisies of the then Jewish leaders. The disciples of Jesus should not follow their wrong motives in the religious practices. They were seeking human admiration and worldly recognition. The Christians must not be bothered by the human and mundane reward, but glory in heaven based on their good deeds here.
Teaching About Almsgiving
(Mt 6:1) Be careful not to make a show of your righteous acts before people. If you do so, you do not gain anything from your Father in heaven.
Jesus warns his disciples against the false practices and motives of the scribes and Pharisees. “I tell you, unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter into the kingdom of heaven” (Mt 5:20). They were adamant in their erroneous practices and declined to correct their mistakes when Jesus warned them. The disciples who were misled by the leaders must realize their falsities and should behave differently according to Jesus’ teachings.
not to make a show of your righteous acts before people.
Sedāqâ, the Hebrew word for alms, also means justice or righteousness. So, Bible translators use almsgiving and righteous acts interchangeably, though righteousness has a wider sense than almsgiving or acts of mercy. Based on the trend of the time when the rich people made a show of their charity, Jesus taught if the motive is public reputation and not kindness toward others, the reward for it is paid off in the self-glory. Publicity others give as a role model for the public, or unintentional publicity is a distinct case. The motivation behind every action is important before God.
Almsgiving involves compassion for the less fortunate and the thirst for justice in the society. Prosperity or poverty can happen regardless of one’s merits or demerits. But as children of God, humans have to consider each other as siblings and support one another in this world. When it is done in God’s name who is the common Father of all, He will reward us for the good intentional sharing.
The precept of almsgiving and justice developed with the settlement of Israelites in the promised land. Until then, they were a seminomadic group without considerable inequalities. God miraculously provided them food and water during the 40 years of their wandering in the desert. After the possession and distribution of the promised land to tribes and families, inequalities grew owing to various reasons. Therefore, God made regulations that required the wealthy to provide for the poor.
(3) Once in three years tithe was given for taking care of the Levites and the poor. “At the end of every third year you shall bring out all the tithes of your produce for that year and deposit them within your own communities, that the Levite who has no hereditary portion with you, and also the resident alien, the orphan and the widow within your gates, may come and eat and be satisfied; so that the LORD, your God, may bless you in all that you undertake” (Deut 14:28-29).
(4) During the sabbatical year, the debts were forgiven (Deut 15:1), and the poor could eat from the land that was left uncultivated during the sabbatical year (Ex 23:11).
(5) On every 50th year, the poor who had sold the property could reclaim them so that equality be maintained. “But if the person does not acquire sufficient means to buy back the land, what was sold shall remain in the possession of the purchaser until the year of the jubilee, when it must be released and returned to the original owner” (Lev 25:28).
God gave these commands because He is the owner of the world and everything in it. “Look, the heavens, even the highest heavens, belong to the LORD, your God, as well as the earth and everything on it” (Deut 10:14). “The land is mine, and you are but resident aliens and under my authority” (Lev 25:23). We will have to leave all worldly achievements in this world at the end of our lives. “As they came forth from their mother’s womb, so again shall they return, naked as they came, having nothing from their toil to bring with them” (Eccl 5:14). So, Jesus advised to share the resources of this perishable world for the imperishable savings in heaven (Mk 10:21).
John the Baptist presented sharing resources as a sign of repentance. “Whoever has two tunics should share with the person who has none. And whoever has food should do likewise” (Lk 3:11). Jesus advised to love and to help the enemies. “Love your enemies and do good to them, and lend expecting nothing back; then your reward will be great and you will be children of the Most High, for he himself is kind to the ungrateful and the wicked” (Lk 6:35). Jesus and the apostles used to give money to the poor from the little donations they had received (Jn 13:29). John the Apostle taught, “If someone who has worldly means sees a brother in need and refuses him compassion, how can the love of God remain in him? Children, let us love not in word or speech but in deed and truth” (1 Jn 3:17-18).
Alms & Righteousness
Almsgiving and righteousness can be seen from different angles:
So, almsgiving is not sharing some leftovers from our surplus resources, but wholeheartedly sharing for the self-reliant life of the beneficiary as much as possible. Almsgiving can have a negative impact if it is not a responsible giving. So, the best approach is helping a person in emergencies, motivating the person to make use of his or her available talents and abilities, to support a person to become self-sufficient, to develop the self-esteem of the person, and to express love as a fellow human.
The gospel passage doesn’t mean we have to hide every good deed. Jesus wanted his followers to be the light of the world (Mt 5:14). He said, “your light must shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your heavenly Father” (Mt 5:16). Jesus also did many good deeds in public because he came as the light of the world (Jn 8:12). However, he tried to avoid publicity often by telling his beneficiaries not to publicize the favors he did for them. So, the caution Jesus gives is to avoid seeking vain glory in this world for acts of righteousness. Jesus said, “When you have done all you have been commanded, say, ‘We are unprofitable servants; we have done what we were obliged to do’” (Lk 17:10).
If you do so, you do not gain anything from your Father in heaven.
The acts of mercy are meritorious before God, and He will reward for every good deed done on behalf of Him. “When you give, give generously and not with a stingy heart; for that, the LORD, your God, will bless you in all your works and undertakings” (Deut 15:10). During the Old Testament times, such rewards were expected in this life. According to Jesus, this can be true, but the full reward will be in heaven. The Last Judgement is based on our good deeds or our sins of omission for the poor (Mt 25:31-46). Jesus even dignified the poor as his representatives. “Amen, I say to you, whatever you did for one of these least brothers of mine, you did for me” (Mt 25:40). So, we have the privilege of serving Jesus through those who need our help. Denial of support to the poor is punishable. “Those who shut their ears to the cry of the poor will themselves call out and not be answered” (Prov 21:13). At the last judgement those who deny help will hear the harsh judgement from Jesus, “‘Amen, I say to you, what you did not do for one of these least ones, you did not do for me.’ And these will go off to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life” (Mt 25:45-46).
from your Father in heaven
In the Lord’s prayer, Jesus gave us the privilege to call God “Our Father in heaven.” Heaven is where the Father exists. Here Jesus says, “your Father in heaven” will reward you for all your good deeds of mercy, provided your motive was not to project yourselves before others.
(2) When you give something to the poor, do not have it trumpeted before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets in order to be praised by the people. I assure you, they have received their reward in full already.
When you give something to the poor, do not have it trumpeted before you,
There might have been some rich Jews who trumpeted in public places to congregate the poor to receive alms from them. Their prime motive was to get public attention and admiration. However, there is no known tradition of the donors blowing trumpets before the distribution of alms. So, Jesus might have used a figure of speech to notify how the rich sought public appreciation when they distributed the alms in public, like in the synagogues or streets. Regardless of whether it is real or metaphorical saying, the message is to avoid unnecessary announcement when we do charity.
as the hypocrites do
Hypocrisy is the pretense of having a noble virtue that the person does not possess. It involves a show or act than reality. The Greek origin of the term is from theatrical acting. So, here it signifies taking the fake piety of a donor. Jesus used hypocrites on other occasions as well. The following are some examples: “When you pray, do not be like the hypocrites” (Mt 6:5). “You hypocrite, remove the wooden beam from your eye first” (Mt 7:5), and “Hypocrites, well did Isaiah prophesy about you when he said: ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their hearts are far from me’” (Mt 15:7).
in the synagogues and in the streets
Beggars seeking alms usually appear at the houses of prayer like Temple and synagogues because the Jews used to offer alms as part of their piety. The synagogues had collection boxes for receiving alms for distribution to the poor. In a wider sense, synagogue also meant any public gathering for prayer or any other purpose. They also seek help in the streets or pathways where many people usually pass by. Jesus criticized the rich who were interested in fame rather than donating in private. Jesus wants charity out of love without humiliating the recipients.
in order to be praised by the people.
Since synagogues and streets were public places, the hypocrites distributed alms in front of the crowd, assuring that they notice their generosity. The public admired the generous contributors because almsgiving is a virtue.
I assure you,
Jesus was sure of what he was declaring.
they have received their reward in full already.
Those who help others deserve reward from the public or from God. Since the intention of the hypocrites was human admiration, they got it fully here, and nothing more is left for their merit in heaven.
Jesus assured reward for all humanitarian works in the name of God. If we do them only for human recognition, we might miss God’s reward in heaven. Jesus guarantees compensation for any unrecognized labor for the Lord and the people.
(3) But when you give something to the poor, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing,
By this proverbial usage, Jesus recommended private charity and voluntary service, which are rewarding from God. It will also respect the privacy and dignity of the recipients. Traditionally, the right hand has a positive or spiritual element attached to it because we offer donations and charitable services mainly using the right hand. It is symbolic of power and help. The left hand is considered as self-centered. However, some people are left-handed. Though both hands are of the same body, this hyperbolic expression emphasizes the nobility of private giving, which is more pleasing to God than giving with pride and publicity.
(4) so that your gift remains really secret. Your Father who sees what is kept secret, will reward you.
your gift remains really secret.
“Jewish tradition tells us that in the ancient Jerusalem Temple there was a room known as the Chamber of Secrets. Donors would go there to secretly make charitable donations and people from good families who had become impoverished would go there in secret to take the donations, to feed themselves and their loved ones” (https://www.wamc.org/commentary-opinion/2020-12-31/dan-ornstein-the-chamber-of-secrets). Thus, the Chamber of Secrets was for private giving and confidential receiving without embarrassment. It is better to avoid giving for one’s own publicity than harming the dignity of the recipient. But the Pharisees and scribes had ignored such valuable Jewish practices and gave alms for their self-glory while degrading the poor.
Secret giving can be primarily for almsgiving or personal giving. There can be acts of mercy that might need public documentation, like supporting charitable organizations and institutions. Jesus did some of his miracles of mercy in public. However, he prevented publicity for himself by asking some of his beneficiaries to keep quiet about the favors he did for them (Mt 8:4; 9:30).
Your Father who sees what is kept secret, will reward you.
God the Father is omniscient and knows the secrets of our hearts (Ps 44:2). “No creature is concealed from him, but everything is naked and exposed to the eyes of him to whom we must render an account” (Heb 4:13). So, God understands the good deeds done in secret and will reward the donor. That can be in this life (Ps 37:25; 41:1-4; 112:9) or in the life after. “Lend expecting nothing back; then your reward will be great” (Lk 6:35). Jesus clearly expressed the reward in the afterlife in the words he would use at the last judgement (Mt 25:34-36). The best kind of charity is when the giver does not know who the beneficiary is, and the receiver does not know the donor. God, who knows the goodwill of the donor, will reward that person.
Teaching About Prayer
(Mt 6:5) When you pray, do not be like the hypocrites. They love to stand and pray in the synagogues or on street corners to be seen by everyone. I assure you, they have already been paid in full.
When you pray, do not be like the hypocrites.
The necessity of prayer is presumed. That also should not be for public admiration, like some people do with almsgiving. Jesus calls such people hypocrites.
They love to stand and pray in the synagogues or on street corners to be seen by everyone.
The Jewish custom for prayer was to stand facing the holy of holies or the Temple with hands outstretched toward heaven. At the dedication of the Temple, “Solomon stood before the altar of the LORD in the presence of the whole assembly of Israel, and stretching forth his hands toward heaven …” (1 Kgs 8:22). Besides worship in the synagogues, the Jews prayed thrice a day on the streets while traveling or working. Street corners were road intersections that would attract attention of more travelers than the streets. Jesus accused the Pharisees and scribes of seeking vain glory by selecting public places for prayer. He did not discourage public prayer but the exhibitionistic approach and the bad intentions behind them.
I assure you, they have already been paid in full.
Jesus confirmed that the show-up people already got their full reward as admiration from the public for their piety. So, they are ineligible for any merit from God.
(6) When you pray, go into your room, close the door and pray to your Father who is with you in secret; and your Father who sees what you do in secret will reward you.
When you pray, go into your room, close the door
Many Jewish families had prayer rooms for their private devotion. It was known as “upper room” because it was on the upper level of the house. Jesus suggested that room for private devotion with God. He specified to close the door to be free from domestic distractions. Besides our prayer services with the community, Jesus also recommended personal prayer in seclusion with his Father.
Pray to your Father who is with you in secret
When Jesus taught his disciples how to pray, he started the prayer, “Our Father who art in heaven.” Thus, Jesus gave us the privilege to call God as our Father. The first part of that prayer is praise and worship of Father. Jesus assures the presence of the Father with the person who prays. When Moses prayed on Mount Sinai and Jesus prayed in solitude, they experienced the presence of the Father.
Your Father who sees what you do in secret will reward you.
God the Father knows even the secrets of our life. The reward of prayer is for our loyalty to Him, along with our praise and worship. God knows what we need and will provide them like the parents provide for their children. “Your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. But seek first the kingdom [of God] and his righteousness, and all these things will be given you besides” (Mt 6:32-33). God will grant our spiritual requests. There can be unanswered prayers for our material needs, like the parents’ denial of some non-essential or harmful requests from children. So, we have to submit to the will of the Father as Jesus prayed at Gethsemane, “My Father, if it is possible, let this cup pass from me; yet, not as I will, but as you will” (Mt 26:39).
Jesus is also in favor of public worship because he regularly attended synagogue services and sacrifices in the Temple. The theme here is the private and personal prayer. That shall not be intended for public appeal. Jesus also went in solitude to mountains (Mt 14:23; Mk 6:46; Jn 6:15) and gardens (Mt 26:36) to pray in private. Prayer for Jesus was his communion with God.
(7) When you pray, do not use a lot of words, as the Gentiles do, for they imagine that the more they say, the more chance they have of being heard.
After contrasting with the Jewish hypocrites, Jesus used a Gentile model that also the Christians should avoid. Jesus noticed that the prayers of Gentiles were wordy and repetitive with their misunderstanding that by such pleas, they could get favors from their gods.
Prayer is more than mechanical reciting and repetition of words. It is the faithful’s close bond with God keeping His commandments. The Christians should express that in their loving relationship with fellow humans who are also God’s children.
If repetition in prayer is undesirable, does it mean Jesus’ teaching is against the rosary or litany we use? Jesus himself had used repeated prayers. While in Gethsemane before his trial and crucifixion, “He left them and withdrew again and prayed a third time, saying the same thing again” (Mt 26:44). Repetition in prayer adds to the strength of the appeal. However, our spirituality should surpass repetitive and mechanical reciting of prayers with Christian behavior and mental disposition.
How the Gentiles used excessive words in their prayer is unclear now. However, the Bible records one such instance. When Elijah competed on Mount Carmel with 450 prophets of Baal to test whose prayer will be answered, the pagan prophets “called upon Baal from morning to noon, saying, ‘Baal, answer us!’ But there was no sound, and no one answering” (1 Kings 18:26). The pagans had the false notion that the more they pray, better the chance to get a positive response from their gods. The Pharisees also had the vain repetition of prayers while their heart was away from God and fellow humans. God does not answer based on how much we invoke on him, but on how we live our life and what He considers best for us.
(8) Do not be like them. Your Father knows what you need, even before you ask him.
Often people are worried about their physical needs. For a Christian, that should not be a concern, because God knows the needs of all. When the person works for the kingdom of God and leads a righteous life, everything else will be available. “So do not worry and say, ‘What are we to eat?’ or ‘What are we to drink?’ or ‘What are we to wear?’ All these things the pagans seek. Your heavenly Father knows that you need them all. But seek first the kingdom [of God] and his righteousness, and all these things will be given you besides” (Mt 6:31-33).
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church, “Prayer is the raising of one’s mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God” (CCC-2559). It also gives importance to humility as our disposition in prayer. “But when we pray, do we speak from the height of our pride and will, or ‘out of the depths’ of a humble and contrite heart? He who humbles himself will be exalted; humility is the foundation of prayer. Only when we humbly acknowledge that ‘we do not know how to pray as we ought,’ are we ready to receive freely the gift of prayer. ‘Man is a beggar before God’” (CCC-2559)
Teaching About Fasting
(Mt 6:16) When you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do. They neglect their appearance, so people can see they are fasting. Truly I say to you, they have received their reward in full already.
When you fast
“When you fast” means private and voluntary fast apart from the legally designated fasting, especially on the day of atonement. The Pharisees fasted on Thursday remembering Moses’ ascendance to Mount Sinai and on Monday remembering his descending from the mountain. Such voluntary fasting should not be seeking public recognition.
Jesus fasted for 40 days and nights to prepare for his public ministry (Mt 4:2). Moses also fasted on Mount Sinai to prepare for receiving the Ten Commandments from God. Anna “worshiped night and day with fasting and prayer” (Lk 2:37) for many years in the Temple before she welcomed Infant Jesus. For the early church leaders, prayer was part of fasting (Acts 13:2-3). So fasting is part of prayer and a period of communion with God.
When a believer is in the heavenly bliss, the person will not feel hunger or thirst as it happened to Moses and Jesus for forty days. The fasting period should be a time focused on God by spending more time on the spiritual growth. Fasting shall include reflective reading of the Bible, participation in the liturgy, reconciliation with God and fellow humans, improving life, and helping the needy. Therefore, alms and prayer are interlinked with fasting. While favoring the fast, the issue Jesus raised was the wrong intention of fasting and the artificial gesture people used as a show up.
People understand and observe fasting in different ways:
Duration of fast can also vary. It can be one day or part of a day (Judg 20:26; 1 Sam 7:6; 2 Sam 1:12; 2 Sam 3:35), three days (Esth 4:16; Acts 9:9), seven days (1 Sam 31:13; 2 Sam 16:18), 14 days (Acts 27:33-34), 21 days (Dan 10:3), or 40 days (Deut 9:9; 1 Kgs 19:8; Mt 4:2). The fasting can be continuous for some intermittent days like one day a week. The Pharisees used to fast twice a week as clear from the prayer of the publican and Pharisee in the Temple (Lk 18:12).
The reasons for fasting can be:
Fasting will be effective when we humble ourselves before the LORD, repent on our sins, and resolve to sin no more. After Jonah’s preaching, the king of Nineveh proclaimed throughout his nation, “Man and beast alike must be covered with sackcloth and call loudly to God; they all must turn from their evil way and from the violence of their hands” (Jon 3:8).
Reading and reflecting on the Scripture will be effective as part of fasting and resistance for temptations. The defense of Jesus to overcome his temptations during his 40-day fast was the Holy Scripture.
Fasting helps us to remain close to God through reconciliation, evasion of sins, experience spiritual joy, share in the sufferings of those who starve, and increase in self-control. It calls us for a change from our sinful life. “So one who fasts for sins, but goes and commits them again: Who will hear his prayer, what is gained by mortification?” (Sir 34:31).
The money we would have used for the food and drink on the day of fasting should be shared with the poor or starving people. The time we save from skipping the meal should be used for extra prayer. Avoiding entertainment or social media and devoting that time to prayer is another way of fasting. Instead of listening to secular music, some people devote that time to spiritual channels during the period of Great Lent. Jesus wants to avoid exhibitionism and self-projection in these to evade human recognition.
Do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do. They neglect their appearance, so people can see they are fasting.
Jesus endorsed fasting with the amendment that the believers should avoid exhibitionism of piety through their outward appearances. The Pharisees conveyed the physical effect of their fasting on their face and in their appearance like imposition of ashes, formal uncleanliness including trimming of hair, anointing with oil, and expression of gloomy look.
God had criticized Israel for their hypocritical fasting, “See, on your fast day you carry out your own pursuits and drive all your laborers. See, you fast only to quarrel and fight and to strike with a wicked fist! Do not fast as you do today to make your voice heard on high! Is this the manner of fasting I would choose a day to afflict oneself? To bow one’s head like a reed, and lie upon sackcloth and ashes? Is this what you call a fast, a day acceptable to the LORD?” (Isa 58:3-5).
Truly I say to you, they have received their reward in full already.
As Jesus mentioned for almsgiving and prayer, he repeated that those who fast for human recognition already got what they sought. They were ineligible for any merit in heaven because they got their full credit from the public.
(17) When you fast anoint your head and wash your face,
The Jews routinely washed their bodies, especially hands and face, and anointed with fragrant olive oil. In a warm climate, these were needed for better health and hygiene (Jn 12:3; Jm 5:14). Anointing, washing, and changing clothes were signs of joy and normal life. Naomi instructed Ruth, “go bathe and anoint yourself; then put on your best attire” to end her widowhood before approaching Boaz (Ruth 3:3). David fasted and prayed for seven days when his son from Bathsheba was seriously sick. When the child died on the seventh day, he ended fasting. “Rising from the ground, David washed and anointed himself, and changed his clothes. Then he went to the house of the LORD and worshiped. He returned to his own house and asked for food; they set it before him, and he ate” (2 Sam 12:20). The elders of Israel had prohibited anointing the head and washing face during the fast on the Day of Atonement. The Jews who practiced private fasting followed the same on other days, like Mondays and Thursdays, so their fasting was noticeable by the public. Jesus gave importance to the spirit behind the fasting, like extra prayer, repentance, restitution, and acts of charity than external acts of piety. He asked those who fasted to appear normal while they make internal disposition acceptable to God. Jesus did not literally mean to anoint the head and wash the face, but the person should not appear differently because of his fasting.
(18) so that other people will not know you are fasting, but only your Father who sees beyond appearances. And your Father, who sees what is done in secret will reward you.
Jesus advised his disciples that they also must fast when it is time for them. The disciples of John the Baptist asked Jesus, “‘Why do we and the Pharisees fast [much], but your disciples do not fast?’ Jesus answered them, ‘Can the wedding guests mourn as long as the bridegroom is with them? The days will come when the bridegroom is taken away from them, and then they will fast’” (Mt 9:14-15). Hence, his disciples are not exempt from fasting. They should avoid hypocrisy, vainglory, and pretension in religious practices, which were characteristics of the self-righteous Pharisees.
The goal of fasting is not to please or gain reward from humans, but from God. The omniscient God understands the actions and intentions of the believers who do fasting in secret. Jesus assured reward for such genuine fasting.